Valentines and Valentine's Day
Verses and Valentine greetings were popular as far back as the Middle Ages, when lovers said or sang their valentines. Written valentines began to appear after 1400. The oldest "valentine" in existence was made in the 1400's and is in the British Museum. Paper valentines were exchanged in Europe where they were given in place of valentine gifts. Paper valentines were especially popular in England. Early valentines were made by hand and were made with colored paper, watercolors, and colored inks.
There were many different types of handmade valentines, including:
Acrostic valentines - had verses in which the first lines spelled out the loved one's name
Cutout valentines - made by folding the paper several times and then cutting out a lacelike design with small, sharp, pointed scissors
Pinprick valentines - made by pricking tiny holes in a paper with a pin or needle. creating the look of lace
Theorem or Poonah valentines - designs that were painted through a stencil cut in oil paper, a style that came from the Orient.
Rebus valentines - verses in which tiny pictures take the place of some of the words. (an eye would take the place of the word I).
Puzzle Purse valentines - a folded puzzle to read and refold. Among their many folds were verses that had to be read in a certain order.
Fraktur valentines - had ornamental lettering in the style of illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages.
In the early 1800's, valentines began to be assembled in factories. Early manufactured valentines were black and white pictures that were painted by workers in a factory.Fancy valentines were made with real lace and ribbons, with paper lace introduced in the mid 1800's. By the end of the 1800's valentines were being made entirely by machine.
In the early 1900's a card company named Norcross began to manufacture valentines. Each year Hallmark displays its collection of rare and antique valentines at card shops around the country. Museums and Libraries also offer antique valentine exhibitions around St. Valentine's Day.
Cupid has always played a role in the celebrations of love and lovers. He is known as a mischievous, winged child, whose arrows who would pierce the hearts of his victims causing them to fall deeply in love. In ancient Greece he was known as Eros the young son of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty. To the Roman's he was Cupid, and his mother Venus.
One legend tells the story of Cupid and the mortal maiden, Psyche. Venus was jealous of the beauty of Psyche, and ordered Cupid to punish the mortal. But instead, Cupid fell deeply in love with her. He took her as his wife, but as a mortal she was forbidden to look at him. Psyche was happy until her sisters convinced her to look at Cupid. Cupid punished her by departing. Their lovely castle and gardens vanished with him and Psyche found herself alone in an open field
As she wandered to find her love, she came upon the temple of Venus. Wishing to destroy her, the goddess of love gave Psyche a series of tasks, each harder and dangerous than the last. For her last task Psyche was given a little box and told to take it to the underworld. She was told to get some of the beauty of Proserpine, the wife of Pluto, and put it in the box.
During her trip she was given tips on avoiding the dangers of the realm of the dead. And also warned not to open the box. Temptation would overcome Psyche and she opened the box. But instead of finding beauty, she found deadly slumber.
Cupid found her lifeless on the ground. He gathered the sleep from her body and put it back in the box. Cupid forgave her, as did Venus. The gods, moved by Psyche's love for Cupid made her a goddess.
Flowers and their meaning
[...] this whole flower language started in Constantinople in the 1600s, and was brought to England in 1716 by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu who had spent time in Turkey with her husband. The interest then moved to France (of course) where the Book Le Langage des Fleurs was printed with over 800 floral signs. Many were toned down in the English translation at the time of Queen Victoria because they were quite lusty and risque! (aww..wish i could get my hands on an original French copy!!)
anyway...here are a few "nice" ones.. [...]
White rosebud - heart ignorant of love
Crocus - abuse not
Rhubarb (!) - advice
Indian jasmine - attachment
Holly - Am I forgotten
Deep red carnation - Alas! for my poor heart
Deep red rose - bashful shame
Full red rose - beauty
Burgundy rose - unconscious beauty (hmm?)
Unique rose - call me not beautiful
Turnip(!) - charity
Chrysanthemum - cheerfulness in old age
Buttercup - childishness
Great yellow daffodil - chivalry
Lettuce - coldheartedness (i guess! [iceberg..get it?] ;)
Moss rosebud - confession of love
Red poppy - consolation
Red tulip - declaration of love
yellow sweetbrier or yellow rose - decrease of love
Mistletoe - difficulties, I surmount
Yellow carnation - rue, distain
Thornless rose - early attachment
Anemone - expectation
Scarlet poppy - extravagance, fantastic
Blue violet - faithfulness
Purple lilac - first emotions of love
Forget-me-not - hmm....gee?
Damask rose - freshness
White rose - i am worthy of you
Peach blossom - i am your captive
Iris - i have a message for you
White daisy - innocence
yellow rose - jealousy
dandelion - love's oracle
Lotus flower - estranged love
Ivy - marriage
Provence rose - my heart is in flames
yellow iris - passion
Dog rose - pleasure and pain
Christmas rose - relieve my anxiety
Filbert - reconciliation
Spanish jasmine - sensuality
Peony - shame
White poppy - sleep
yellow chrysanthemum - slighted love
Amarylis - splendid beauty
Honeyflower - sweet and secret love
Pansy - thoughts
Zinnia - thoughts of absent friends
Forget-me-not also means true love
White and red rose together - unity
Parsley - useful knowledge
Pink carnation - woman's love
lady slipper - win me and wear me (i swear that's what it says!)
Marigold - vulger minded
Rosemary - your presence revives me
Ice plant - your looks freeze me
FLOWER IT MEANS...
Red rose Love
Yellow rose Friendship
White rose Fear
Pink rose Indecision
Green rose I am from Mars
Lily I am dead
Dandelion I am very cheap
Dandelion going to seed I am very cheap and I am dead
Buttercup I do/don't like butter (rubbed on chin)
Chrysanthemum I have periodontal disease
Carnation I ripped this off of some guy's tuxedo
Sunflower I am hungry
Crabgrass I just escaped from a mental institution
Scallion I am clueless
The Language of Flowers.
Flowers may be combined and arranged so as to express even the nicest shades of sentiment.
If a flower is offered ``reversed'', its direct signification is likewise reversed, so that the flower now means the opposite.
A rosebud divested of its thorns, but retaining its leaves, convays the sentiment, ``I fear no longer; I hope.'' Stripped of leaves and thorns, it signifies, ``There is nothing to hope or fear.''
A full-blown rose places over two buds, signifies ``Secrecy.''
`` Yes,'' is implied by touching the flower given to the lips; ``No,'' by pinching off a petal and casting it away.
`` I am,'' is expressed by a laurel leaf twined arround the bouquet; ``I have,'' by an ivy leaf folded together; ``I offer you,'' by a leaf of Virginia creeper.
Moss Rosebud and Myrtle.
A confession of love.
Mignonette and Coloured Daisy.
Your qualities surpass your charms of beauty.
Lily of the Valley and Ferns.
Your unconscious sweetness has fascinated me.
Yellow Rose, Broken Straw and Ivy.
Your jealousy has broken our friendship.
Scarlet Geranium, Passion Flower, Purple Hyacinth, and Arbor Vitae.
I trust you will find consolation, through faith, in your sorrow; be assured of my unchanging friendship.
Columbine, Day Lily, Broken Straw, Witch Hazel and Coloured Daisy.
Your folly and coquetry have broken the spell of your beauty.
White Pink, Canary Grass and Laurel.
Your talent and perseverance will win you glory.
Golden-rod, Monkshead, Sweet Pea and Forget-me-not.
Be cautious; danger is near; I depart soon; forget me not.
ABOR VITAE - Unchanging friendship.
CAMELIA, WHITE. - Loveliness.
CANDY-TUFF. - Indifference.
CARNATION, DEEP RED. - Alas! for my poor heart.
CARNATION, WHITE. - Distain.
CHINA-ASTER. - Variety.
CLOVER, FOUR-LEAF. - Be mine.
CLOVER, WHITE. - Think of me.
CLOVER, RED. - Industry.
COLUMBINE. - Folly.
COLUMBINE, PURPLE. - Resolved to win.
DAISY. - Innocence.
DEAD LEAVES. - Sadness.
DEADLY NIGHTSHADE. - Falsehood.
FERN. - Fascination.
FORGET-ME-NOT. - True love. Forget me not.
FUCHSIA, SCARLET. - Taste.
GERANIUM, SCARLET. - Consolation.
GERANIUM, ROSE. - Preference.
GOLDEN-ROD. - Be cautious.
HELIOTROPE. - Devotion.
HONEY-FLOWER. - Love, sweet and secret.
HYACINTH, WHITE. - Unobtrusive loveliness.
IVY. - Fidelity.
LADY'S SLIPPER. - Win me and wear me.
LILY, DAY. - Coquetry
LILY, WHITE. - Sweetness.
LILY, YELLOW. - Gaiety.
LILY OF THE VALLEY. - Return of happiness.
MIGNONETTE. - Your qualities surpass your charms.
MONKSHEAD. - Danger is near.
MYRTLE. - Love.
OATS. - The witching soul of music.
ORANGE BLOSSOMS. - Chastity.
PANSY. - Thoughts.
PASSION FLOWER. - Faith.
PEACH BLOSSOM. - I am your captive.
PEAR. - Affection.
PRIMROSE. - Inconstancy.
QUAKING GRASS. - Agitation.
ROSE. - Love.
ROSE, DEEP RED. - Bashful shame.
ROSE, YELLOW. - Jealousy.
ROSE, WHITE. - I am worthy of you.
ROSEBUD, MOSS. - Confession of love.
SHAMROCK. - Lightheartedness.
STRAW. - Agreement.
STRAW, BROKEN. - Broken agreement.
SWEEP PEA. - Depart.
TUBEROSE. - Dangerous pleasures.
VERBENA. - Prey for me.
WITCH HAZEL. - A spell.
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HOW TO SAY------
"I LOVE YOU" in:
Arabic : ana behebak (I love you,masculine)
: ana behebik (I love you, feminine)
: Habibi (My love, masculine)
: Habibity (My love, feminine)
Canadian French : Sh'teme (spoken, sounds like this)
: Je t'aime ("I like you")
: Je t'adore ("I love you")
Chinese : Goa ai li (Amoy)
: Ngo oi ney (Cantonese)
: Wa ai lu (Hokkien)
: Wo ai ni (Mandarin)
: Wo ie ni ( " )
: Wuo ai nee ( " )
: Wo ay ni ( " )
: Wo ai ni (Putunghua)
: Ngo ai nong (Wu)
Creol : Mi aime jou
Danish : Jeg elsker dig
Dutch : Ik hou van je
: Ik hou van jou
: Ik bemin je (old fashioned)
: Ik bemin jou ( " )
: Ik ben verliefd op je
: Ik ben verliefd op jou
: Ik zie je graag
English : I love you
: I adore you
Esperanto : Mi amas vin
French : Je t'aime ("I like you")
: Je t'adore ("I love you")
French (formal) : Je vous aime
Gaelic : Ta gra agam ort
German (formal) : Ich liebe Sie (rarely used)
German : Ich liebe dich
: Ich hab dich lieb (not so classic and
Bayrisch : I mog di (right answer: "I di a")
Berlinerish : Ick liebe dir
Berner-Deutsch : Ig liebe di
Bochumer : Ich find dich geil
Friesisch : Ik hou fan dei (sp?)
Saarländish : Isch hann disch lieb
Sächsich0 : Isch liebdsch
Schweizer-Deutsch : Ch'ha di gärn
Vorarlbergerisch : I stand total uf di
Greek : S'ayapo (spoken "s'agapo", 3rd letter is lower
Greek (old) : (Ego) Philo su ('ego', for emphasis)
Hawaiian : Aloha i'a au oe
: Aloha wau ia 'oe
Hebrew : Anee ohev otakh (male to female)
: Anee ohevet otkha (female to male)
: Anee ohev otkha (male to male)
: Anee ohevet otakh (female to female)
('kh' pronounced like
Spanish 'j', Dutch 'g', or similiar to
Italian : Ti amo (relationship/lover/spouse)
: Ti voglio bene (between friends)
: Ti voglio (strong sexual meaning, "I want
you", refering to other person's
Irish : Taim i' ngra leat
Irish/Gaelic : Mo ghra' thu'
Japanese : Kimi o ai shiteru
: Chuu shiteyo
: Ora omee no koto ga suki da
: Ore wa omae ga suki da
: Watashi wa anata ga suki desu
: Watashi wa anata wo aishithe imasu
: Watashi wa anata o aishitemasu
: A-i-shi-te ma-su
: Watakushi-wa anata-wo ai shimasu
: Suki desu (used at the first time, like for a
start, when you are not yet real lovers)
Korean : Tangsinul sarang ha yo
Klingon : SoHvaD vIghajtaH bang
: qaparHa'qu'taH ("I like you!")
Latin : Te amo
: Vos amo
Latin (old) : (Ego) Amo te ('Ego', for emphasis)
Norwegian : Jeg elsker deg (Bokmaal)
: Eg elskar deg (Nynorsk)
: Jeg elsker deg (Riksmaal)
Phillipino : Mahal kita
Pig Latin : Ie ovele ouye
Russian : Ya vas lyublyu (old fashioned)
: Ya tyebya lyublyu (best)
: Ya lyublyu vas (old fashioned)
: Ya lyublyu tyebya
Scot Gaelic : Tha gradh agam ort
Spanish : Te amo
: Te quiero
: Te adoro (I adore you)
: Te deseo (I desire you)
Swedish : Jag aelskar dig
: Jag a"lskar dig
: Jag :alskar dig
Turkish : Seni seviyorum (I love you)
: Senden hoslaniyorum (I like you)
: Seni istiyorum (I like you)
Vietnamese : Anh ye^u em (male)
Vulcan : Wani ra yana ro aisha
Welsh : Rwy'n dy garu di
: Yr wyf i yn dy garu di (chwi)
Yiddish : Ikh hob dikh lib
: Ich libe dich
: Ich han dich lib